Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyCountryCase groupControl group*NOS
nAge, M (range)Men (%)nType
Almasi et al (2009)e1 Hungary19443 (30–62)80.9194Living†5
Altindag et al (2005)e2 Turkey2624 (12–62)15.425Living9
Anton-San-Martin et al (2013)e3 Spain4056 (19–90)67.580Living7
Appleby et al (1999)e4 England8427 (13–34)81.064Living6
Arafat et al (2021)e5Bangladesh10026 (9–75)49.0100Living7
Beautrais (2001)e6New Zealand20237 (14–88)77.7984Living7
Chachamovich et al (2015)e7 Canada1202382.5120Living4
Chen et al (2006)e8China15039 (15–59)64.0150Living7
Cheng et al (2000)e9Taiwan113NR61.5226Living8
de la Vega Sanchez et al (2020)e10 Spain1925410081Deceased4
De Leo et al (2013)e11Australia261≥3575.1182Deceased6
Foster et al (1999)e12 Ireland11716–7679.5117Living7
Gururaj et al (2004)e13 India26975% 16–4964.3269Living†7
Jia et al (2014)e14China20061 (11–93)57.5200Living7
Jollant et al (2014)e15 Philippines1515–6473.330Living5
Khan et al (2008)e16 Pakistan100NR83.0100Living7
Kim et al (2003)e17Canada11529 (18–65)10082Living8
Kodaka et al (2017)e18Japan102≥2069.6334Living7
Kolves et al (2006)e19Estonia4274880.3427Living†7
Kurihara et al (2009)e20 Indonesia6041 (13–87)63.3120Living9
Manoranjitham et al (2010)e21 India1004259.0100Living6
Martiello et al (2019)e22 Italy91≥2580.2270Living7
Morales & Martinez (2010)e23 Colombia1012869.3112Deceased7
Nicolas et al (2016)e24Canada423750.042Living5
Overholser et al (2012)e25 United States1484778.4257Deceased4
Owens et al (2003)e26 England100≥1867.0100Living6
Page et al (2014)e27 Australia8418–3484.5250Living7
Palacio et al (2007)e28Colombia10829 (19–43)80.6108Deceased6
Politakis et al (2017)e29 Slovenia904970.090Living4
Rasouli et al (2019)e30 Iran4039 (19–75)80.040Living†7
Ross et al (2017)e31 Australia12625–4410068Deceased6
Schneider et al (2006)e32Germany1635064.4396Living†6
Tong & Phillips (2010)e33China89542 (12–94)50.7701Deceased5
Vijayakumar & Rajkumar (1999)e34 India100≥1555.0100Living7
Zhang et al (2004)e35China664672.766Living5
Zhang et al 2010e36China39227 (15–34)54.6416Living7
Zonda (2006)e37 Hungary1005267.0100Deceased7
  • Note. References are provided in online supplemental table S3.

  • *Matched with the case group for age and sex in all but five studies.e6,e10,e11,e25,e33

  • †Control subjects acted as their own informants.

  • ‡Multiple publications for this study.

  • NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score; NR, not reported.