Table 2

Pooled estimates of risk factors for suicide, by domain

Samples (k)Cases (n)Controls (n)OR (95% CI)z
Sociodemographic domain
 Social isolation10154916134.0 (2.1 to 7.7)4.295
 Unemployment25401044393.8 (2.7 to 5.2)8.179
 Low socioeconomic status42844502.8 (1.8 to 4.2)4.90
 Low education19309944742.7 (2.1 to 3.5)8.264
 Single/not married21277335762.4 (1.8 to 3.2)6.474
 Low income6153023172.4 (1.6 to 3.6)4.274
 Living alone15274830142.3 (1.5 to 3.4)4.077
 Not religious12138315502.2 (1.4 to 3.5)3.477
 Not having children610269791.3 (0.9 to 1.8)1.461
Family history domain
 Mental disorder64158005.2 (1.9 to 14.1)3.282
 Suicide14201822683.7 (2.3 to 5.7)5.773
 Suicide attempt7163817892.8 (1.5 to 5.0)3.482
Clinical domain
 Any mental disorder284085436813.1 (9.9 to 17.4)17.876
  Depression223432380511.0 (7.3 to 16.5)11.577
  Schizophrenia spectrum disorder17305641657.8 (4.5 to 13.5)7.463
  Bipolar disorder8122014854.6 (2.1 to 10.1)3.833
  Substance use disorder21352546213.7 (2.8 to 5.0)8.771
  Alcohol use disorder18277742773.2 (2.3 to 4.4)6.571
  Drug use disorder6116320983.0 (1.7 to 5.4)3.720
  Anxiety disorder17299741992.5 (1.7 to 3.5)4.852
  Dysthymia696415662.4 (1.4 to 4.1)3.236
 Any personality disorder (PD)13143716346.8 (4.7 to 9.8)10.342
  Borderline PD775410099.0 (5.6 to 14.4)9.00
  Paranoid PD55198076.2 (3.5 to 11.2)6.10
  Dependent PD43937396.1 (2.5 to 15.1)3.90
  Avoidant PD55267013.9 (1.4 to 11.1)2.569
  Antisocial PD55157153.4 (2.0 to 6.1)4.30
 Psychiatric treatment112171297210.5 (7.4 to 14.9)13.141
 History of self-harm263466458210.1 (6.6 to 15.6)10.577
 Previous suicide attempt22297141078.5 (5.3 to 13.4)9.177
 Smoking44126604.3 (2.3 to 7.9)4.667
 Physical illness16296332532.9 (2.4 to 3.6)11.219
Adverse life events
 Relationship conflict10133823185.0 (3.3 to 7.6)7.873
 Legal problems688917694.8 (2.4 to 9.4)4.575
 Family-related conflict9115413644.5 (2.0 to 10.3)3.692
 Abuse/victimisation68238033.5 (2.4 to 5.0)6.80
 Financial problems15180522612.8 (2.0 to 4.0)5.965
 Early separation from parents43446762.7 (1.6 to 4.5)3.75
 Work/school-related conflict11161425651.8 (1.1 to 2.8)2.584
 Bereavement788911221.2 (0.5 to 3.1)0.486
 Timing of life events
  Within past month71140113610.4 (7.1 to 15.3)12.119
  Within past 6 months34024025.3 (1.8 to 15.9)3.091
  Within past 3 months46136132.9 (1.6 to 5.0)3.772