Table 2

Main comparisons of teacher outcomes at 1-year follow-up

OutcomeSBMT arm (I)TAU arm (C)Unadjusted mean
Difference (I-C)
Adjusted mean difference (I-C)ICC*
NMean (SD)NMean (SD)EstimateEstimate95% CIP value
 Mental health – (MBI)
 Exhaustion
ITT 2102.4 (1.2)1712.5 (1.2)−0.1−0.1−0.3 to 0.10.2470.080
CACE (i)† −0.1−0.2−0.4 to 0.10.221
CACE (ii)‡ −0.3−0.4−0.9 to 0.10.154
 Depersonalisation
ITT 2100.7 (0.7)1710.9 (0.9)−0.1−0.1−0.2 to 0.10.3620.139
CACE (i)† −0.1−0.1−0.3 to 0.10.274
CACE (ii)‡ −0.3−0.3−0.7 to 0.10.147
 Personal accomplishment
ITT 2101.0 (0.7)1711.1 (0.8)−0.1−0.1−0.2 to 0.10.2580.025
CACE (i)† −0.1−0.1−0.3 to 0.10.208
CACE (ii)‡ −0.3−0.3−0.6 to 0.10.142
Self-efficacy Questionnaire (TSES)
 Student Engagement Subscale
ITT 2047.0 (1.1)1626.8 (1.1)0.20.1−0.1 to 0.30.2690.133
CACE (i)† 0.20.1−0.1 to 0.40.262
CACE (ii)‡ 0.40.4−0.2 to 0.90.188
 Instructional Practice Subscale
ITT 2047.5 (0.8)1627.5 (1.0)0.0010.03−0.1 to 0.20.7040.087
CACE (i)† −0.0020.04−0.2 to 0.20.737
CACE (ii)‡ −0.0040.1−0.3 to 0.60.577
 Classroom Management Subscale
ITT 2047.8 (0.8)1627.6 (0.9)0.20.1−0.04 to 0.30.1320.099
CACE (i)† 0.20.2−0.05 to 0.40.116
CACE (ii)‡ 0.50.5−0.02 to 1.00.060
Mindfulness (FFMQ-SF)
ITT 20585.4 (12.8)16286.1 (13.9)−0.8−0.2−2.4 to 2.00.8540.028
CACE (i)† −1.2−0.1−2.9 to 2.60.935
CACE (ii)‡ −2.61.0−4.5 to 6.60.711
Mindfulness (MTS)—Interpersonal
ITT 20820.8 (2.7)16820.9 (2.4)−0.2−0.2−0.7 to 0.20.3330.028
CACE (i)† −0.3−0.3−0.9 to 0.30.318
CACE (ii)‡ −0.7−0.4−1.5 to 0.80.522
Mindfulness (MTS)—Intrapersonal
ITT 20832.1 (5.0)16833.4 (5.6)−1.2−0.9−1.7 to −0.10.0200.060
CACE (i)† −1.7−1.2−2.2 to −0.20.024
CACE (ii)‡ −3.7−2.0−4.1 to 0.030.053
Stress (PSS)
ITT 20715.3 (6.9)16515.9 (7.4)−0.30.01−1.1 to 1.20.9820.075
CACE (i)† −0.3−0.1−1.7 to 1.40.890
CACE (ii)‡ −0.6−0.6−3.8 to 2.50.686
Depression (PHQ-9)
ITT 2064.7 (4.1)1645.0 (4.2)−0.3−0.1−1.0 to 0.70.7310.052
CACE (i)† −0.4−0.2−1.3 to 0.90.712
CACE (ii)‡ −0.9−0.9−3.1 to 1.30.438
Anxiety (GAD7)
ITT 2064.2 (3.9)1634.3 (4.1)−0.10.2−0.7 to 1.00.6960.045
CACE (i)† −0.10.2−0.9 to 1.30.742
CACE (ii)‡ −0.30.2−2.1 to 2.50.867
School ecology/climate (SCCS)
 School leadership and involvement
ITT 2113.9 (0.7)1713.8 (0.7)0.10.1−0.04 to 0.30.1440.248
CACE (i)† 0.20.2−0.03 to 0.40.100
CACE (ii)‡ 0.30.4−0.04 to 0.80.079
 Staff attitudes
ITT 2114.1 (0.6)1714.1 (0.5)0.030.1−0.1 to 0.20.2530.280
CACE (i)† 0.030.1−0.1 to 0.30.207
CACE (ii)‡ 0.10.2−0.1 to 0.60.165
 Respectful Climate
ITT 2113.9 (0.5)1713.7 (0.6)0.10.20.02 to 0.30.0200.274
CACE (i)† 0.20.20.04 to 0.40.015
CACE (ii)‡ 0.40.40.1 to 0.80.012
  • *Intracluster (intraschool) correlation coefficients (ICCs) from crude (unadjusted) analyses.

  • †A participant in the SBMT arm is deemed a complier if they have attended at least four of the eight personal mindfulness (MBCT-L) sessions.

  • ‡A participant in the SBMT arm is deemed a complier if they have attended at least four of the eight personal mindfulness (MBCT-L) sessions and the 4-day training course, and have delivered at least one mindfulness session.

  • FFMQ-SF, Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form; GAD7, Generalised Anxiety Disorder; MBI, Maslach Burnout Inventory; MTS, Mindfulness in Teaching Scale; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale; SCCS, School Climate and Connectedness Survey; TSES, Teacher’s Self-Efficacy Scale.