Table 1

Analysis of effects of MBPs, when compared with active/passive controls or delivered as a selective/universal intervention for selected outcomes

kTotal nIntervention effectsHeterogeneityPublication bias (Egger)
Mean effect size (d)SE95% CIzP valueQ valueP valueI2 tP value
Anxiety/stress
 All3611 5300.140.04(0.06 to 0.23)3.25<0.0170.42<0.01504.08<0.01
 Active controls1717050.110.05(0.02 to 0.21)2.32<0.0510.170.8601.490.16
 Passive controls2199670.120.06(−0.01 to 0.38)2.05<0.0556.32<0.01642.51<0.05
 Selective intervention1811320.240.07(0.11 to 0.37)3.64<0.0118.980.33100.550.59
 Universal intervention1810 4520.080.05(−0.02 to 0.18)1.640.134.86<0.01512.89<0.05
Attention
 All2429200.210.07(0.07 to 0.36)2.89<0.0171.96<0.01681.30.21
 Active controls1115030.040.05(−0.06 to 0.14)0.730.478.740.5600.110.92
 Passive controls1414350.350.12(0.11 to 0.58)2.91<0.0153.89<0.01760.90.38
 Selective intervention97630.340.17(−0.01 to 0.66)2.02<0.0533.12<0.01760.750.48
 Universal intervention1521420.160.08(0.01 to 0.32)2.06<0.0536.28<0.01610.740.47
Depression
 All3016 4240.090.04(0.02 to 0.17)2.39<0.0570.93<0.01592.27<0.05
 Active controls1360020.10.07(−0.04 to 0.23)1.420.1636.8<0.01671.10.3
 Passive controls1912 8020.060.04(−0.02 to 0.13)1.430.1535.12<0.05461.870.08
 Selective intervention169460.210.11(0.004 to 0.42)2<0.0534.6<0.01570.810.43
 Universal intervention1415 4780.050.04(−0.02 to 0.12)1.310.1930.45<0.01571.290.22
Executive Functions
 All3611 6180.250.06(0.13 to 0.36)4.22<0.01147.47<0.01763.49<0.01
 Active controls1418870.040.05(−0.06 to 0.13)0.760.4513.250.4320.860.41
 Passive controls2598900.350.08(0.19 to 0.52)4.19<0.01140.9<0.01833.65<0.01
 Selective intervention139660.390.13(0.14 to 0.65)3.07<0.0138.35<0.01691.20.26
 Universal intervention2310 6520.190.06(0.06 to 0.31)2.89<0.0191.96<0.01762.31<0.05
Mindfulness
 All2510 5320.160.06(0.04 to 0.29)2.55<0.0584.65<0.01723.9<0.01
 Active controls1416280.240.01(0.06 to 0.42)2.61<0.0134.23<0.01621.10.29
 Passive controls1289180.030.07(-0.11 to 0.16)0.40.6925.85<0.01572.36<0.05
 Selective intervention114470.290.1(0.09 to 0.50)2.83<0.0112.190.27180.040.97
 Universal intervention1410 0850.10.07(−0.04 to 0.24)1.440.1558.24<0.01782.64<0.05
Negative Behaviour
 All2310 3180.210.06(0.09 to 0.33)3.4<0.0173.14<0.01703.22<0.01
 Active controls89990.130.1(−0.06 to 0.32)1.310.1913.860.054490.230.83
 Passive controls1794620.230.08(0.08 to 0.37)3.02<0.0159.39<0.01732.95<0.01
 Selective intervention1211850.10.06(−0.02 to 0.22)1.690.096.940.801.740.11
 Universal intervention1191330.310.1(0.10 to 0.51)2.99<0.0165.17<0.01852.86<0.05
Social Behaviour
 All1810 0510.130.07(−0.01 to 0.26)1.840.0770.41<0.01762.3<0.05
 Active controls81257−0.030.13(−0.27 to 0.22)−0.210.8325.17<0.01721.220.27
 Passive controls1189150.210.09(0.04 to 0.39)2.34<0.0544.05<0.01774.72<0.01
 Selective intervention7570−0.110.18(−0.47 to 0.24)−0.630.5319.24<0.01691.490.2
 Universal intervention1194810.20.08(0.04 to 0.36)2.43<0.0550.6<0.01805.28<0.01
Well-being
 All1011 8890.030.05(−0.06 to 0.13)0.710.4821.63<0.05581.120.3
 Active controls731710.110.07(−0.04 to 0.25)1.430.159.870.13390.780.47
 Passive controls610 094−0.10.05(−0.20 to 0.01)−1.830.0711.67<0.05571.130.32
 Selective intervention171−0.61
 Universal intervention911 8180.050.04(−0.04 to 0.13)1.050.2916.3<0.05512.47<0.05
  • d, cohen’s d; k, number of studies; MBPs, mindfulness-based programmes; p, significance level; Q, positive false discovery rate; t, Egger’s regression.