Table 1

Childhood mental disorder prevalence study characteristics

StudyStudy locationData collection year(s)Sampling frameSample size*Ages (years)Diagnostic standardDiagnostic measure†Informant(s)Timeframe‡
Canino 2004s2 Puerto Rico (USA)1999–2000Households18974–17DSM-IVDISC-IVChild or parent12
Chen 2020s3 Taiwan2015–2017Schools48167–14DSM-5K-SADS-EChild6
Costello 2003s4 North Carolina (USA)1993–2000Schools14209–16DSM-IVCAPAChild or parent3
Elberling 2015s5 Copenhagen (Denmark)2000Population registry15855–7ICD-10DAWBAParent + teacher1–12
Farbstein 2010s6 Israel2004–2005Population registry95714–17DSM-IVDAWBAChild + parent1–12
Ford 2003s7 England, Scotland, Wales (Great Britain)1999Households10 4385–15DSM-IVDAWBAChild + parent + teacher1–12
Georgiades 2019s8 Ontario (Canada)2014–2015Households65374–17DSM-IV-TRMINI-KIDChild/parent6
Heiervang 2007s9 Bergen (Norway)2002–2003Schools62978–10DSM-IVDAWBAParent + teacher1–12
Kessler 2012s1, s10 USA2001–2004Households + schools648313–17DSM-IVCIDIChild or parent12
Lawrence 2016s11 Australia2013–2014Households63104–17DSM-IVDISC-IVParent§12
Lesinkiene 2018s12 Lithuania2004–2007Schools33097–16ICD-10DAWBAParent + child + teacher1–12
Merikangas 2010s13 USA2001–2004Population registry30428–15DSM-IVDISC-IVChild or parent12
Park 2015s14 Seoul (South Korea)2005–2006Schools16456–12DSM-IVDISC-IVParent12
Vicente 2012s15 Cautin, Conception, Iquique, Santiago (Chile)2007–2009Households15584–18DSM-IVDISC-IVChild/parent12
  • + Diagnoses determined using clinical judgement combining information from multiple informants. / Diagnoses determined relying on a single informant based either on disorders and/or age ranges; figure 2 gives details on data used in meta-analysis. (Online supplemental appendix D lists references s1 to s15). 'or' Diagnoses determined applying ‘OR’ rule whereby disorders were counted if diagnostic thresholds met by any informant (either child or parent).

  • *51.2% of participants were girls.

  • †Fully structured measures included CAPA, CIDI, DISC-IV and MINI-KID; semi-structured measures included DAWBA and K-SADS-E.

  • ‡Duration over which symptoms/impairment were assessed; when a range of timeframes were provided, 12 month prevalence was chosen.

  • §While 11- to 17-year-olds were informants for one disorder, only parent reported estimates were used in meta-analyses due to insufficient data for calculating overall rate for 11- to 17-year-olds.

  • CAPA, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment; CIDI, Composite International Diagnostic Interview; DAWBA, Development and Well-Being Assessment; DISC-IV, Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children; DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; ICD, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems; K-SADS-E, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological; MINI-KID, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents.