Table 1

Maternal and child characteristics by exposure to antipsychotics during pregnancy and maternal diagnosis of psychotic or bipolar disorder

Full study populationMaternal psychotic or bipolar disorders
Exposed
(n=15 466)
Unexposed
(n=4 308 620)
Exposed
(n=4385)
Unexposed
(n=8356)
Maternal characteristicsn (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
 Age at delivery, years
  <20446 (2.9)76 196 (1.8)92 (2.1)190 (2.3)
  20–242564 (16.6)580 868 (13.5)655 (14.9)1493 (17.9)
  25–294285 (27.7)1 367 998 (31.8)1141 (26.0)2562 (30.7)
  30–344448 (28.8)1 447 387 (33.6)1283 (29.3)2413 (28.9)
  35–392822 (18.2)692 412 (16.1)903 (20.6)1351 (16.2)
  ≥40901 (5.8)143 759 (3.3)311 (7.1)347 (4.2)
 Education
  Compulsory3732 (24.1)477 050 (11.1)1000 (22.8)2227 (26.7)
  Secondary3760 (24.3)1 305 399 (30.3)1053 (24.0)2886 (34.5)
  Postsecondary2024 (13.1)1 010 008 (23.4)469 (10.7)1490 (17.8)
  Postgraduate359 (2.3)263 335 (6.1)92 (2.1)276 (3.3)
  Missing5591 (36.2)1 252 828 (29.1)1771 (40.4)1477 (17.7)
 Cohabiting
  Yes11 133 (72.0)3 508 251 (81.4)3039 (69.3)5963 (71.4)
  No4249 (27.5)783 164 (18.2)1325 (30.2)2365 (28.3)
  Missing84 (0.5)17 205 (0.4)21 (0.5)28 (0.3)
 Mother born within source country
  Yes12 170 (78.7)3 478 423 (80.7)3473 (79.2)7016 (84.0)
  No2574 (16.6)701 117 (16.3)675 (15.4)1135 (13.6)
  Missing722 (4.7)129 080 (3.0)237 (5.4)205 (2.5)
 BMI*, early pregnancy
  <18.5418 (2.7)99 837 (2.3)94 (2.1)261 (3.1)
  18.5–245097 (33.0)1 735 832 (40.3)1364 (31.1)3337 (39.9)
  25–293038 (19.6)682 603 (15.8)1043 (23.8)1743 (20.9)
  30–341525 (9.9)246 832 (5.7)562 (12.8)819 (9.8)
  ≥35922 (6.0)117 031 (2.7)387 (8.8)476 (5.7)
  Missing4466 (28.9)1 426 485 (33.1)935 (21.3)1720 (20.6)
 Smoking, early pregnancy
  Yes4600 (29.7)475 860 (11.0)1515 (34.5)2031 (24.3)
  No9310 (60.2)3 499 645 (81.2)2570 (58.6)5782 (69.2)
  Missing1556 (10.1)333 115 (7.7)300 (6.8)543 (6.5)
 Parity
  07090 (45.8)1 850 721 (43.0)2235 (51.0)4174 (50.0)
  14473 (28.9)1 545 695 (35.9)1154 (26.3)2440 (29.2)
  ≥23770 (24.4)889 425 (20.6)953 (21.7)1709 (20.5)
  Missing133 (0.9)22 779 (0.5)43 (1.0)33 (0.4)
 Maternal comorbidity
  Yes1395 (9.0)161 014 (3.7)418 (9.5)571 (6.8)
  No14 071 (91.0)4 147 606 (96.3)3967 (90.5)7785 (93.2)
 Maternal psychiatric disorders
  Psychotic or bipolar disorders4385 (28.4)8356 (0.2)4385 (100.0)8356 (100.0)
  Other psychiatric disorders5729 (37.0)415 906 (9.6)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
  No recorded psychiatric conditions5352 (34.6)3 884 358 (90.2)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Use of known teratogens
  Yes531 (3.4)9503 (0.2)291 (6.6)250 (3.0)
  No14 935 (96.6)4 299 117 (99.8)4094 (93.4)8106 (97.0)
 Use of suspected teratogens
  Yes3211 (20.8)127 660 (3.0)1508 (34.4)2675 (32.0)
  No12 255 (79.2)4 180 960 (97.0)2877 (65.6)5681 (68.0)
 Other medications during pregnancy
  Yes9937 (64.3)647 209 (15.0)2747 (62.6)4171 (49.9)
  No5529 (35.7)3 661 411 (85.0)1638 (37.4)4185 (50.1)
Children characteristicsn (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
 Sex
  Male7758 (50.2)2 211 376 (51.3)2289 (52.2)4284 (51.3)
  Female7708 (49.8)2 097 244 (48.7)2096 (47.8)4072 (48.7)
 Calendar year of birth
  1996–20052338 (15.1)1 148 146 (26.6)600 (13.7)764 (9.1)
  2006–20083645 (23.6)808 282 (18.8)612 (14.0)1020 (12.2)
  2009–20113040 (19.7)851 673 (19.8)1010 (23.0)1876 (22.5)
  2012–20143429 (22.2)830 200 (19.3)1175 (26.8)2446 (29.3)
  2015–20173014 (19.5)670 319 (15.6)988 (22.5)2250 (26.9)
  • *BMI was not obtained from Denmark.

  • BMI, body mass index.