Table 3

HRs and 95% CIs comparing the risk for ASD in exposed and unexposed children by timing and type of antipsychotic exposure

Number with ASD/NPerson-years at riskHazard ratio (95% CI)
CrudeModel 1*Model 2†
Antipsychotic exposure
 Unexposed38436/4 308 62041 982 6971.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Exposed anytime during pregnancy238/15 466131 0292.12 (1.86 to 2.41)2.11 (1.86 to 2.40)1.12 (0.97 to 1.29)
Timing of antipsychotic exposure
 First trimester only105/647856 4202.14 (1.76 to 2.59)1.96 (1.62 to 2.38)1.19 (0.97 to 1.44)
 Second/third trimester only47/334928 7811.96 (1.47 to 2.61)2.11 (1.58 to 2.80)1.11 (0.83 to 1.48)
 First trimester and second/third trimester86/563945 8262.24 (1.80 to 2.78)2.35 (1.90 to 2.91)1.04 (0.82 to 1.30)
Type of antipsychotic exposure
 Typical antipsychotics only113/689675 8231.60 (1.33 to 1.93)1.66 (1.38 to 2.00)1.06 (0.87 to 1.28)
 Atypical antipsychotics only110/775248 1663.09 (2.56 to 3.73)2.91 (2.41 to 3.52)1.26 (1.03 to 1.54)
  • *Adjusted for source country, birth year, sex of child, maternal age, and parity.

  • †Adjusted for source country, birth year, sex of child, maternal age, parity, maternal education, cohabitation, mother born within source country, BMI, smoking, maternal comorbidity, use of known teratogens, use of suspected teratogens, other medications during pregnancy.

  • ASD, autism spectrum disorder; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.