Table 2

Predictors of patient-reported adherence to medication measured daily via smartphones in patients with bipolar disorder, n=117*

Model 1†Model 2†
B95% CIP valueB95% CIP value
Gender‡0.037−0.05 to 0.120.410.052−0.036 to 0.140.24
Age, years§0.0022−0.0021 to 0.00650.320.00390.00019 to 0.00760.040
Bipolar disorder subtypes I and II−0.056−0.14 to 0.0330.22−0.058−0.15 to 0.300.20
Illness duration, years−0.0011−0.0055 to 0.00340.64−0.0057−0.011 to −0.000350.037
Years of education after primary school0.0085−0.0075 to 0.0250.300.0056−0.010 to 0.0220.49
Number of previous affective episodes0.00085−0.00053 to 0.00220.230.00071−0.00062 to 0.00220.27
Number of previous hospitalisations0.0015−0.0065 to 0.00940.750.00140.0066 to 0.00940.74
Patient-evaluated mood (euthymic to manic) measured daily using smartphones0.0310.0073 to 0.0560.0110.240.091 to 0.300.002
Patient-evaluated mood (euthymic to depressive) measured daily using smartphones0.0120.005 to 0.019<0.00010.320.11 to 0.540.003
HDRS−0.0088−0.016 to −0.00220.009−0.010−0.016 to −0.00290.005
YMRS−0.0032−0.014 to 0.00790.57−0.0032−0.014 to 0.00770.56
FAST−0.0025−0.0061 to 0.00110.17−0.00320.0068 to 0.000410.083
Empowerment¶0.0120.0038 to 0.0200.0040.0110.0034 to 0.0190.005
  • *Adherence scored as not taken, taken, taken with changes (0, 1, 2).

  • †Model 1: unadjusted. Model 2: adjusted for age and gender.

  • ‡Adjusted model only adjusted for age (female served as reference).

  • §Adjusted model only adjusted for gender.

  • ¶Roger’s Empowerment Scale.

  • FAST, Functional Assessment Short Test; HDRS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; YMRS, Young Mania Rating Scale.