Table 1

Large-scale digital data sets from health, education and research settings considered in relation to linkage in this review.

Type of dataData setData controller(s)MeasuresPopulation sampleMeasurement modeMeasurement frequency
Mental health dataClinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data from NHS mental health trustsParticipating NHS trustsDe-identified data; support team, referrals, episodes, diagnoses, treatment, text notesChildren and adolescents using secondary care mental health support from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) teamsElectronic Health Records (EHR) for CAMHSPer clinical contact
Community care (health) dataNational Child Measurement Programme (NCMP)NHS DigitalHeight, weight, BMIChildren attending schools and in reception or year 6 at time of measurement (annual)Community care teams or school health nursesReception and year 6
Education (school) dataNational Pupil Database (NPD)Department for Education (DfE)Attainment, absence, exclusions, free school meals, children in care, SEN, etc.Pupils aged 3–19 from all maintained primary, secondary and special schoolsSchool administrative systems and databasesAnnual (some fields 3x per year)
Survey (research) dataPupil Survey on Health and Well-BeingLocal authorities, NHS trusts, or universitiesValidated and unvalidated mental health questionnaires, risk and protective factors, etcConsented pupils from participating schoolsSurveys in schools, usually onlineVariable—from one-off to termly/annual
Digital phenotyping (research) dataRemote Digital PhenotypingUniversities, and/or NHS trustsDigital measures related to mood, movement/actigraphy, heart rate, etcConsenting participants/patients (with parental consent)Websites, phones and/or wearable devicesWeekly, daily or continuous
  • BMI, Body Mass Index; ID, Identifier; NHS, National Health Service; SAIL, Secure Anonymised Information Linkage; SEN, Special Educational Needs.