Table 2

Prevention programme descriptions and evaluation findings

ProgrammeSample size
(country)
Ages/Grades
(risk factors)
Programme elementsSession number and durationFollow-up
period*
Child anxiety outcomes
(diagnostic rates)†
Universal programmes—school-based
Aussie Optimism27 28 910
(Australia)
Grade 4
(not applicable)
Child group CBT‡10 sessions over 2.5 months2.5 years• 1 of 1 symptom
1.5 years• Any AD diagnoses (3% vs 4%)
Targeted programmes—community-based
Cool Little Kids29 545
(Australia)
4 years
(temperamental inhibition)
Parent group CBT training6 sessions over 3 months9 months• SAD, SP, SpAD + GAD diagnoses (44% vs 50%)
↓ 1 of 1 symptom
Coping and Promoting Strength I30 40
(USA)
7–12 years
(parent with an anxiety disorder)
Family CBT9–11 sessions over 5 months9 months↓ Any AD diagnoses§ (0% vs 30%)
↓ 2 of 3 symptoms
Coping and Promoting Strength II31 32 136
(USA)
6–13 years
(parent with an anxiety disorder)
Family CBT11 sessions over 5 months9 months↓ Any AD diagnoses§ (5% vs 31%)
↓ 3 of 4 symptoms
Mindset33 96
(USA)
12–15 years
(anxiety/depressive symptoms)
Child individual training on trait modifiability via computer1 30-min session9 months• 2 of 2 symptoms
Targeted programmes—school-based
Feelings Club34 148
(Canada)
Grades 3–6
(anxiety/depressive symptoms)
Child group CBT + parent group education12 child + 3 parent sessions over 3 months1 year• Any AD diagnoses (7% vs 10% by parent report; 8% vs 17% by child report)
• 1 of 1 symptom
Friends35 260
(Australia)
Grade 7
(anxiety symptoms)
Child group CBT + parent group education12 child + 1–2 parent sessions over 5.5 months3.75 years• Any AD diagnoses¶ (23% vs 24%)
↓ 1 of 2 symptoms
Generic Cognitive Behavioural Therapy240
(Netherlands)
12–16 years
(anxiety symptoms)
Child group CBT10 sessions over 2.5 months2 years• SAD diagnoses (2% vs 6%)
• 4 of 4 symptoms
Cognitive Bias Modification36 Child individual cognitive bias training via computer20 sessions over 2.5 months2 years• SAD diagnoses (10% vs 6%)
• 4 of 4 symptoms
  • • Denotes no significant differences between intervention and comparison group.

  • ↓ Denotes statistically-significant reductions in diagnoses/symptoms favouring intervention over comparison group.

  • Follow-up period counted from end of intervention including booster sessions, where applicable.

  • † Diagnostic rates for intervention versus comparison children.

  • ‡ Programme addressed both anxiety and depression.

  • § Included children with AD diagnosis from post-test to final follow-up.

  • ¶ Included children with AD diagnosis at any point in year prior to the final follow-up.

  • AD, anxiety disorder; CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy; GAD, generalised anxiety disorder; SAD, social anxiety disorder; SP, specific phobia; SpAD, separation anxiety disorder.