Table 3

Psychosocial treatment descriptions and evaluation findings

Programme
(diagnoses)
Sample size
(country)
Ages/GradesProgramme elementsSession number and durationFollow-up
period*
Child anxiety outcomes
(diagnostic rates)†
Home-based
Strongest Families
(GAD, SpAD, SAD, SP)37
91
(Canada)
6–12 yearsSelf-directed family CBT with coaching13 sessions over 6.5 months5.5 months↓ Any AD diagnoses (25% vs 50%)‡
Clinic-based
Cool Little Kids Plus Social Skills
(SAD, GAD, SpAD, SP)38
72
(Australia)
2–5 yearsParent group CBT training + child group SST6 parent + 6 child sessions over 2.5 months3 months↓ Any AD diagnoses (66% vs 100%)
↓ # of AD diagnoses
↓ 3 of 5 symptoms
Parent Education Program
(SoP, SP, SpAD, GAD)§39
146
(Australia)
3–4 yearsParent group CBT training6 sessions over 2.5 months3 years↓ Any AD diagnoses (40% vs 69%)
↓ 2 of 3 symptoms
Timid to Tiger
(SpAD, SAD, SP, PD, GAD)40
74
(England)
2–9 yearsParent group CBT training10 sessions over 2.5 months1 year↓ Primary AD diagnoses (46% vs 76%)
↓ Any AD diagnoses (54% vs 91%)
• 3 of 3 symptoms
Attention Bias Modification Treatment
(SAD)41
67
(Israel)
6–18 yearsChild individual attention bias training via computer8 sessions over 1 month3 months• 2 of 2 symptoms
Coping Cat Individual161
(USA)
7–14 yearsChild individual CBT¶16 sessions over 4 months1 year• Primary AD diagnoses (39% vs 56%)
↓ 1 of 8 symptoms
Coping Cat Family
(GAD, SoP, SpAD)42
Family CBT• Primary AD diagnoses (42% vs 56%)
• 8 of 8 symptoms
Cool Kids
(GAD, SoP, SpAD, PD, SP)43
112
(Australia)
7–16 yearsChild group CBT + parent group CBT training10 sessions over 2.5 months3 months↓ Primary AD diagnoses (31% vs 55%)
↓ Any AD diagnoses (51% vs 70%)
↓ 3 of 6 symptoms
One-Session Treatment
(SP)44
196
(Sweden + USA)
7–16 yearsChild individual CBT1 session over 3 hours6 months↓ SP diagnoses (51% vs 65%)
↓ 1 of 6 symptoms
Coping Cat
(GAD, SpAD, SAD)45
133
(USA)
9–14 yearsChild individual CBT¶14 sessions over unnamed period1 year↓ Any AD diagnoses (18% vs 35%)
↓ 1 of 3 symptoms
Generic CBT
(SAD)46
73
(USA)
12–17 yearsChild individual or group CBT12 sessions over 3 months6 months• 5 of 5 symptoms
School-based
Friends (with or without parent involvement)∗∗
(SAD, GAD, SoP)††
47 48
61
(USA)
Grades 2–5Child group CBT ± parent group CBT training11 child + 9 parent sessions over 5 months2.75 years↓ 1 of 5 symptoms
3 months• Primary AD diagnoses (14%–25% vs 40%)
• New AD diagnoses (15%–29% vs 29%)
Coping Koala
(SoP, SP, GAD, SpAD)†† 49
128
(Australia)
Grades 3–7Child group CBT + parent group CBT training10 child + 3 parent sessions over 2.5 months2 years↓ Any AD diagnoses (20% vs 39%)
↓ 2 of 6 symptoms
Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS)
(SAD)50
36
(USA)
Grades 9–11Child group CBT + parent + teacher education20 child + 2 parent/teacher sessions over 5 months4 months↓ SAD diagnoses (27% vs 93%)
↓ 2 of 5 symptoms
SASS Psychologist-Delivered138
(USA)
Grades 9–11Child group CBT + parent + teacher education20 child + 2 parent/teacher sessions over 5 months3 months• SAD diagnoses (72% vs 88%)
↓ 4 of 5 symptoms
SASS Counsellor-Delivered
(SAD)w51
↓ SAD diagnoses (61% vs 88%)
↓ 3 of 5 symptoms
  • ↓ Denotes statistically-significant reductions in diagnoses/symptoms favouring treatment over comparison group.

  • • Denotes no significant differences between treatment and comparison groups.

  • * Follow-up period counted from end of treatment including booster sessions, where applicable.

  • † Diagnostic rates for intervention versus comparison.

  • ‡ Rates are approximate.

  • § Approximately 93% met criteria for anxiety disorder; remainder had temperamental inhibition.

  • ¶ Parent involvement in 2 sessions including psychoeducation and coaching on responding to anxious behaviours.

  • ** Because there was no difference in outcomes for Friends with and without parent involvement combined results from 2 treatment groups are reported.

  • †† Approximately 75% met criteria for anxiety disorder; remainder were symptomatic.

  • AD, anxiety disorder; CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy; GAD, generalised anxiety disorder; PD, panic disorder; SAD, social anxiety disorder; SoP, social phobia; SP, specific phobia; SpAD, separation anxiety disorder; SST, social skills training.