Table 2

A review of selected attention-deficit/hyperactivity treatment trials using the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale as an outcome measure

StudyLocationInterventionDesignTreatmentEndpoint*Age range (n)†MeasureDomains with statistically significant improvement
Maziade et al 35 CanadaPHARMOLATX6 months6–11 (16)WFIRS-PT, F, S, LS, SC
Stein et al 48 USAPHARMRCTER d-MPH, ER MAS8 weeks9–17 (65)WFIRS-PT, F, S, Soc, RA
Hantson et al 36 CanadaPSYOLSummer treatment programme3 weeks6–12 (48)WFIRS-PAll, large ES
Banaschewski et al 39 EuropePHARMRCTLDX, OROS-MPH, placebo7 weeks6–17 (336)WFIRS-PAll, largest ES in S for LDX
Fuentes et al 49 Europe, MexicoPHARMOL, RCTATX, OEST6–12 months6–16 (399)WFIRS-PAll
Meisel et al 41 SpainPSY+PHARMRCTNeurofeedback, MPH5 months or 40 sessions7–14 (23)WFIRS-PT in both groups with large ES
Zavadenko and Suvorinova 50 RussiaPHARMOLHopantenic acid6–8 months6–12 (32)WFIRS-PAll
Banaschewski et al 51 Europe, USAPHARMOL, RWPLDX, placebo26 weeks OL, 6 weeks RWP6–17 (153)WFIRS-POL: All, greatest S
Hervas et al 38 Europe, USA, CanadaPHARMRCTGXR, ATX, placebo10–13 weeks6–17 (338)WFIRS-PT, S, F, Soc
Montoya et al 40 SpainPSY+PHARMRCTMPH/ATX+psychoeducation, MPH/ATX12 months6–12 (208)WFIRS-PNo significant differences between groups
Gandía-Benetó et al 52 SpainPHARMOLLDX9 months6–18 (41)WFIRS-SNone
LaCount et al 37 USAPSYOLCBT20 hours in 10 weeks18–38 (17)WFIRS-SAmong completers, S, W (F, Soc, RA were excluded)
Su et al 10 ChinaPHARMOLOROS-MPH16 weeks6–16 (205)WFIRS-PSymptom remitters greater functional improvement except RA
Stein et al 34 Canada, USAPHARMRCTGXR, placebo8 weeks6–12 (333)WFIRS-PT, F, S, Soc, RA; change in scores was congruent with symptom improvement
Vidal et al 53 SpainPSYRCTGroup CBT, waitlist control12 sessions15–21 (119)WFIRS-S, WFIRS-PCBT had greater change via the WFIRS-P; at baseline, impairment was greater on WFIRS-S than WFIRS-P
Wilens et al 33 USAPHARMRCTGXR, placebo13 weeks13–17 (401)WFIRS-PNone
Nagy et al 54 Europe, US,A CanadaPHARMRCTLDX, ATX9 weeks6–17 (267)WFIRS-P3 LDX>ATX T, S and Soc but all domains improved in both groups
Newcorn et al 55 Europe, USA, CanadaPHARMOL, RWPGXR, placebo13 weeks OL, 26 weeks RWP6–17 (316)WFIRS-PRWP: the placebo group had significant increases S
Dose et al 31 GermanyPSY+PHARMRCTTASH+MPH, MPH12 months6–12 (103)WFIRS-SAmong TASH completers, all except S (RA was excluded)
Ni et al 56 TaiwanPHARMRCTMPH, ATX8–10 weeks18–50 (63)WFIRS-SAll
Zavadenko et al 57 RussiaPHARMRCTHopantenic, placebo4 months6–12 (89)WFIRS-PS, SC
  • This does not represent a systematic review of all studies. All samples were participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  • *Endpoint is defined as the last visit with valid data.

  • †Either randomised n or completer n.

  • ATX, atomoxetine; CBT, cognitive–behavioural therapy; ER d-MPH, extended release dexmethylphenidate; ER MAS, mixed amphetamine salts; ES, effect size; F, Family domain; GXR, guanfacine extended release; LDX, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate; LS, Life Skills; MPH, methylphenidate; OEST, other early standard therapy; OL, open label; OROS-MPH, osmotic release oral-system methylphenidate; PHARM, pharmacological; PSY, psychological; RA, Risky Activities; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RWP, randomised withdrawal period; S, School; SC, Self- Concept; Soc, Social; T, Total score; TASH, telephone-assisted self-help; W, Work; WFIRS-S/P, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Self/Parent.