Table 2

Prevention programme descriptions and evaluation findings

ProgrammeSample size
Ages/Grades at
programme start
(risk factors)
after post-test
behaviour outcomes*
Universal programmes
Good Behavior Game w48 922 (USA)Grade 1
(not applicable)
Child BT
2 school years14 years↓ ASPD diagnoses
Triple P I w49–w50 280 
3–6 years
(not applicable)
Parent training
1 month3.9 years↓ 2 of 8 symptoms
11 months• 1 of 1 symptom
Triple P II alone 1675
Grade 1—Triple P II
(not applicable)
Parent training
1 month8 years↓ 2 of 7 symptoms†
PATHS alone Grade 2—PATHS
(not applicable)
Child SST
1 school year7 years• 7 of 7 symptoms†
Triple P II+PATHS w51–w52 As aboveAs aboveAs above7 years• 7 of 7 symptoms†
Targeted programmes
Classroom-Centered Intervention653 (USA)Grade 1
(low income)
Child enriched curriculum, child SST+child BT
1 school year5–11 years§↓ 1 of 1 symptom
5 years↓ CD diagnoses
↓ 2 of 2 symptoms
Family School Partnership w53-w54 Parent training+parent-school collaboration (school)5–11 years§↓ 1 of 1 symptom
5 years• CD diagnoses
↓ 2 of 2 symptoms
Chicago Parent Program w55 504 (USA)2–4 years
(low income)
Parent training
2.8 months1 year↓ 2 of 4 symptoms
Coping Power w56–w58 245 (USA)Grade 5
(behaviour problems)
Parent training+child CBT
2 school years3.5 years↓ 1 of 1 symptom
1 year↓ 1 of 1 symptom**
Family Check-Up w59–w62 731 (USA)2 years (behaviour problems,
maternal challenges +/or low SES)
Parent training
4.3 years4.2 years• 1 of 1 symptom
2.2 years↓ 1 of 1 symptom
Fast Track w63–w64 ††891 (USA)Grade 1
(behaviour problems)
Parent training, child SST+child tutoring
(school, community, home)
10 school years8 years↓ ASPD diagnoses
↓ 2 of 5 symptoms**
2 years• ODD/CD diagnoses
Incredible Years Basic w65 153 (UK)3–4 years
(behaviour problems)
Parent training
2.8 months3.2 months↓ 2 of 4 symptoms
Incredible Years
Basic+Literacy w66
174 (UK)5–6 years
(low income)
Parent training+child literacy training
4.1 months7.9 months• 4 of 4 symptoms
Incredible Years Enhanced w67 92 (USA)2–5 years
(sibling in justice system)
Parent training
(community, home)
9–11 months8 months↓ 1 of 2 symptoms
Montreal Prevention Program w68 w69 250 (Canada)Grade 2
(boys with behaviour problems)
Child SST, child BT, parent training+teacher training
(school, home)
2 school years19 years• 1 of 1 symptom
15 years• 1 of 1 symptom
Nurse-Family Partnership w70 400 (USA)Prenatal
(low income, first-time mothers)
Parent training
26 months
13 years↓ 3 of 14 symptoms**
Parent-Management Training—Oregon w71 238 (USA)6–10 years
(boys living with recently separated mothers)
Parent training
3.2 months8.7 years↓ 3 of 3 symptoms**
Perry Preschool w72 128 (USA)3–4 years
(low income+low IQ)
Child enriched curriculum+parent-school collaboration (community, home)16 months35 years↓ 2 of 9 symptoms**
REDI w73–w75 ††356 (USA)4 years
(low income)
Child SST, child literacy training+teacher training (community)4 months4 years• 1 of 1 symptom
1 year↓ 2 of 2 symptoms
  • ↓ denotes statistically significant reductions in diagnoses/symptoms; • denotes no significant differences between intervention and control groups.

  • * Diagnostic findings extracted for all follow-up periods and symptom findings extracted for either longest follow-up period or for two follow-up periods when needed to meet criterion of reporting on 2 or more behaviour symptoms (including one that was blinded).

  • †Outcome measure completed by teachers during earlier follow-up was blinded so assumed later blinding as well.

  • Good Behavior Game included in Classroom-Centered Intervention.

  • §Analysis included follow-up ranging from 5 to 11 years.

  • ¶Of 245 children, 123 also received a universal intervention (Coping with Middle School Transitions); outcomes only reported for Coping Power (targeted) because it alone met criteria.

  • **Reductions included particularly serious symptoms such as criminal activities, arrests, days incarcerated.

  • ††PATHS included in both Fast Track and REDI.

  • ASPD, antisocial personality disorder; BT, behaviour training; CBT, cognitive-behavioural training; CD, conduct disorder; ODD, oppositional defiant disorder; PATHS, Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies; REDI, Research-Based Developmentally Informed; SES, socioeconomic status; SST, social skills training.