Table 3

Psychosocial treatment descriptions and evaluation findings 

ProgrammeSample size
Ages at programme
Follow-up after post-testChild behaviour outcomes*
Brief Intervention— Youth only 300 (USA)11–17 yearsChild CBT
2 weeks2 years↓ 1 of 1 symptom†
1.5 years• 2 of 2 symptoms
Brief Intervention— Youth+Parent w76 Child CBT+Parent training
3 weeks2 years• 1 of 1 symptom
1.5 years• 2 of 2 symptoms
Incredible Years Basic w77–w78 120 (UK)3–7 yearsParent training
3–3.7 months7.8 years (average)↓ ODD diagnoses
↓ 1 of 3 symptoms
Incredible Years
Basic+Literacy w77–w79
112 (UK)4–6 yearsParent training+child literacy training (community, home)6.4 months5.8 years
• ODD diagnoses
• 3 of 3 symptoms
4 months↓ ODD diagnoses
Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care I w80–w81 79 (USA)12–17 years (boys only)Parent training, child SST, family therapy
(home, community)
6.8 months (average)1.4 years
↓ 2 of 2 symptoms†
Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care II w82 81 (USA)13–17 years
(girls only)
Parent training, child SST, family therapy
(home, community)
5.7 months (average)1.4 years
↓ 1 of 3 symptoms†
Multisystemic Therapy I w83 ‡,§118 (USA)12–17 yearsParent training, child CBT, family therapy
(home, community)
4.3 months (average)6 months• 2 of 2 symptoms
Multisystemic Therapy II w84 131 (USA)11–17 yearsParent training, child CBT, family therapy
(home, community)
7 months
1.4 years
↓ 1 of 2 symptoms†
Multisystemic Therapy III w85–w86 164 (USA)11–18 yearsParent training, child CBT, family therapy
(home, community+school)
5.2 months
2 years• 2 of 2 symptoms
1 year↓ 2 of 4 symptoms
Multisystemic Therapy IV w87–w89 256 (Netherlands)12–18 yearsParent training, child CBT, family therapy
(home, community)
5.7 months (average)2.8 years
• 1 of 1 symptom
7.2 months
↓ 5 of 6 symptoms†
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy w90 81 (Norway)2–7 yearsParent training
4.9 months
1.1 years
↓ 2 of 5 symptoms
Parent Management Training–Oregon w91 112 (Norway)4–12 yearsParent training
6.1 months (average)1.1 years
• 7 of 7 symptoms
Protocol for On-Site Nurse-Administered Intervention w92 163 (USA)6–11 yearsParent training, child CBT, family therapy
4 months (average)1 year• ODD/CD diagnoses
• 1 of 1 symptom
Strongest Families w93 80 (Canada)3–7 yearsParent training¶
3.2 months5.2 months• ODD diagnoses
  • ↓denotes statistically significant reductions in diagnoses/symptoms; •denotes no significant differences between intervention and control groups.

  • *Diagnostic findings extracted for all follow-up periods and symptom findings extracted for either longest follow-up period or for 2 follow-up periods when needed to meet criterion of reporting on two or more behaviour symptoms (including one that was blinded).

  • †Reductions included particularly serious behaviour symptoms, including criminal activities, arrests and days incarcerated.

  • ‡All youth had prior justice system involvement.

  • §All youth also met diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder.

  • ¶Intervention predominately self-delivered using handbooks and videos supplemented with weekly telephone coaching.

  • CD, conduct disorder; CBT, cognitive-behavioural training; ODD, oppositional defiant disorder; SST, social skills training.