Table 4

Table of studies in which HRV measures were calculated on a least one cohort with BPD diagnoses. Summary of ECG recordings, HRV measures and results are provided, in addition to their interpretation and adherence to the GRAPH checklist.

Study/yearCohortsDataParametersResultsInterpretationGood practice checklist
Austin et al,31 20079 BPD, 11 HCFour times 10 min ECG watching filmsRSASignificantly reduced RSA in BPDLower RSA is linked to reduced parasympathetic activity in BPD, with changes in RSA much less after emotional stimuliLittle demographic information. HRV not calculated
Ebner-Priemer et al,32 200750 BPD, 50 HC24 hours ambulatory ECGmRR, HF power, HF power at nightIncreased mRR and HF power in BPDIncreased HF power indicates increased parasympathetic activity, opposite to the expected findingsLittle demographic information. No information on R–R interval extraction, cleaning and dealing with artefacts
Meyer et al,34 201627 BPD, 23 BPD in remission, 18 PTSD, 23 HC5 min at rest. After emotional face classificationRMSSD, SDNN, NN50, total power, LF, HF and LF/HF ratioHRV lower in all groups compared with HC. Only significant for PTSDNo difference in HRV between BPD and HC. This may differ at varying stress levelsNo ECG sampling frequency. R–R interval extraction and cleaning using Kubios, with no further detail
Weinberg et al,33 200912 BPD, 28 HCThree times 5 min ECGRSADecreased RSA values in BPDIncreased levels of sympathetic activity and decreased levels of parasympathetic activity indicated by reduced RSANo information on disease characteristics and little demographic information. HRV not calculated.
  • BPD, borderline personality disorder; HC, healthy control; HF, high frequency; HRV, heart rate variability; LF, low frequency; LF/HF ratio, low frequency to high frequency ratio; NN50, number of R-R intervals over 50ms; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; RMSSD, root mean square of successive differences; RSA, respiratory sinus arrhythmia; SDNN, SD of R–R intervals.