Table 1

Summary of characteristics of the three mHealth studies

DisorderSchizophrenia.Bipolar disorder I and II.Chronic psychotic disorders: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychosis.
Target clinical dimension(s)Rest-activity patterns, and their relation to symptomatic deterioration and relapse.Self-reported positive and negative affect; relapse.Social cognition and functioning.
Technologies(1) Consumer wearable device with accelerometer and heart rate sensor; (2) Android smartphone provided by research team; (3) Custom designed smartphone application with self-rated symptom severity items, which also accessed smartphone sensors including accelerometer and smartphone usage meta-data.(1) Participant’s own Android smartphone; (2) Custom designed smartphone application with self-rated symptom severity items, and tailored psychoeducational messages.(1) iPad provided by research team; (2) Commercially available computerised social cognition training app; (3) Commercially available videoconferencing and social networking app.
Approach to developmentIterative focus groups informing app design and selection of mobile devices.User-centred design, with iterative user involvement over the course of the study using online surveys, individual interviews and focus groups (figure 1).Theory-driven intervention design, integrating structured training of social cognitive abilities with weekly group teletherapy with group texting. Online surveys that assess current social difficulties and patient-centred goals are administered to customise the group teletherapy sessions.
Project partners Academic:
Clinicians and bioinformaticians from King’s College London; app developers from Northwestern University, USA.
Data access agreement with Fitbit.
Clinicians from the University of Barcelona, Spain, and collaborating academic centre in Santiago, Chile.
App development was outsourced to a commercial entity in Paraguay.
Clinicians and data scientists at University of California at San Francisco.
Posit science;
Business associate agreement with Google.