Table 1

Participant characteristics

Characteristic (n=36)
Mean age (years)53.11* (SD 12.35)
Sex (% female)18 (48.7%)
Mean baseline Beck’s Depression Inventory score†36.27 (SD 11.43)
Mean baseline body mass index  (BMI)‡30.16 (SD 6.04)
Prior smartphone use (% using)23 (63.9%)
Education level
 University13 (36%)
 College/higher education13 (36%)
 Secondary10 (28%)
  • *Data for 35 patients only due to missing entry of birth date for one patient.

  • †Beck’s Depression Inventory scores may range from 0 to 63, where higher scores indicate higher severity of depression.

  • ‡BMI scores are positively correlated with measures of body fat, where a BMI of 30 or higher indicates obesity.