Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in meta-analysis concerning the point prevalence of GAD in BD

StudyLocationDiagnostic groupCriteria for diagnosisProcedure for diagnosisNMales (%)AgePrevalence
N (%)
Bellani et al38University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USABDDSM-IVSCID20529.336.6±11.528 (13.7)Similar rates of depressive episodes between study groups
MDD10529.538.0±13.14 (3.8)
Boylan et al39McMaster Regional Mood Disorders Program (Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaBDDSM-IVSCID13831.9∼41*43 (31.2)Outpatients, 70.3% BD-I, 29.7% rapid cycling
Chang et al40National Cheng Kung University Hospital and Tri-Service General Hospital, TaiwanBD-IDSM-IV-TRSADS-L12048.3331.4±11.510 (8.33)Outpatients from the Han population of Taiwan
BD-II20549.2733.0±12.029 (14.14)
Cosoff and Hafner41Adelaide, AustraliaBDDSM-III-RSCID206034.8±102 (10.0) 
Schiz607 (11.7)
Schizoaff202 (10.0
Dell’Osso et al42University Department of Psychiatry of Milan, ItalyBDDSM-IVSCID50844.1>40*7 (1.4)56.7% BD-I, 76.1% without any substance or alcohol abuse
Kauer-Sant’Anna et al43Bipolar Disorders Program of the University Hospital at the Federal University, Porto Alegre, BrazilBDDSM-IV-TRSCID16233.95>42*19 (11.7)Outpatients of University hospital
Koyuncu et al44Mood Disorders Unit of Psychiatry Department of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, TurkeyBDDSM-IVSCID7035.736.2±15.94 (5.71)Outpatients of University hospital
Mantere et al45Mood Disorders Research Unit, NPHI, Helsinki, FinlandBDDSM-IVSCID19147.137.7±12.229 (15.18)Acute phase BD, 47.1% BD-I, inpatients or outpatients. rapid cycling in 32.5%, and psychotic symptoms in 16.2% of patients
MDD26926.8NA37 (13.75)
McElroy et al6Multisite USA and the NetherlandsBDDSM-IVSCID28844.042.8±11.38 (2.78)STANLEY foundation data
Simon et al12Multisite USABD-IDSM-IVSCID36040.641.7±12.846 (12.8)First 500 patients of STEP-BD
BD-II11512 (10.4)
Otto et al46Multisite USABDDSM-IVSCID91841.040.6±12.7122 (13.3)First 1000 patients of STEP-BD. >75% BD-I, half patients in recovery, ∼25% depressed
Tamam and Ozpoyraz47Cucurova University Adana, TurkeyBD-IDSM-IVSCID7041.433.4±10.39 (12.9)Included only patients with BD-I
Zutshi et al48NIMHANS, Bangalore, IndiaBDDSM-IVSCID8071.330.06±7.7719 (23.8)Patients with remitted BD; the controls were relatives of neurological patients
Controls5076.031.44±7.853 (6)
Overall BDDSM (III-R or IV)SCID but 12975†12.9BD and MD rates are after meta-analysis. Corrected prevalence of GAD in controls is 3% and in schizophrenia and schizoaffective is approximately equal to that of BD
  • *Not available, estimated. †The patients from the Simon et al12 study were not included because they overlap with those of the Otto et al46 study.

  • ‡Estimation not directly supported by the data.

  • BD, bipolar disorder; DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; GAD, generalised anxiety disorder; N, sample size; NA, not available; MDD, major depressive disorder; SADS-L, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM; Schiz, schizophrenia; Schizoaff, schizoaffective disorder.