Table 2

Characteristics of studies included in meta-analysis concerning the lifetime prevalence of GAD in BD

StudyLocationDiagnostic groupCriteria for diagnosisProcedure for diagnosisNMales (%)AgePrevalence
N (%)
Azorin et al5119 centres in FranceBD-IDSM-IVSCID109042.043.0±14.0217 (19.9)Acutely manic hospitalised patients with BD-I
Coryell et al145 academic centres, USABDRDCSADS, LIFE42741.936.3±NA20 (4.68)Prospective follow-up of 17.4±8.4 years
Goldstein and Levitt52National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, USABD-IDSM-IVNESARC141141.038.9±NA346 (24.5)2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey, USA
Grabski et al53Three outpatient settings, Krakow PolandBD-IDSM-IVCIDI5042.544.6±11.017 (34.0)Outpatients in remission
BD-II236 (26.1)
Kessler et al2US epidemiological studyBD-IDSM-III-RCIDI2958.6NA12 (41.4)National Comorbidity Study
McElroy et al6Multisite USA and the NetherlandsBDDSM-IVSCID28844.042.8±11.38 (2.8)STANLEY foundation data
Mantere et al54National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, and Department of Psychiatry, Jorvi Hospital, HUCH, Espoo, FinlandBDDSM-IVSCID16149.318–5918 (11.2)Jorvi Bipolar Study
Nakagawa et al55Japan and USABDDSM-III-RSCID11634.538.9±NA2 (1.7)Depressed patients, 57.8% BD-I, 68.1% inpatients
Nery-Fernandes et al56General Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia, BrazilBDDSM-IVSCID6220.942.0±12.738 (12.9)Mostly BD-I
Pini et al57Pisa, ItalyBDDSM-III-RSCID2445.437.9±12.08 (33.3)Depressed patients
MDD3825.047.0±15.014 (36.8)
Dysthymia2537.543.0±12.016 (64.0)
Rihmer et al58Hungarian epidemiological studyBD-IDSM-III-RDIS95NA18–6410 (10.5) 
BD-II245 (20.8)
MDD44362 (14.0)
Simon et al12Multisite USABD-IDSM-IVSCID36040.641.7±12.868 (18.9)First 500 patients of STEP-BD
BD-II11519 (16.5)
Slama et al59Paris and Bordeaux, FranceBDDSM-IVDIGS180NANA7 (3.9)Patients in remission
Szadoczky et al60Hungarian epidemiological studyBDDSM-III-RDIS14944.018–6422 (14.4)Epidemiological, rates weighted for sex
MDD44362 (14.0)
Tamam and Ozpoyraz47Cucurova University Adana, TurkeyBD-IDSM-IVSCID7041.433.4±10.310 (14.3)Included only patients with BD-I
Tsai et al61TaiwanBD-IDSM-IVCIDI30648.037.07±12.337 (12.1)
Yerevanian et al13Los Angeles, USABDDSM-IIISCID, chart review3551.4∼403 (8.6)Mostly BD-II
MDD9828.622 (22.5)
Young et al16Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, CanadaBDRDCSADS8139.537.6 (19–66)26 (32.1)
Zutshi et al48NIMHANS, Bangalore, IndiaBDDSM-IVSCID8071.330.06±7.7720 (25)Patients with remitted BD; the controls were relatives of neurological patients
Controls5076.031.44±7.853 (6)
Overall BDDSM III to IV
  • *Estimation not directly supported by the data.

  • BD, bipolar disorder; CIDI, Composite International Diagnostic Interview; DIGS, Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies; DIS, Diagnostic Interview Schedule; DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; GAD, generalised anxiety disorder; HUCH, Helsinki University Central Hospital; MDD, major depressive disorder; N, sample size; NA, not available; NESARC, National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions; RDC, Research Diagnostic Criteria; SADS, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM.