Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder

Risk factorNumber of studiesNumber of participantsEffect size range rWeighted mean r
*Heterogeneity among studies was statistically significant.
Trauma severity4913 653−0.14 to 0.760.23*
Lack of education2911 047−0.11 to 0.370.10*
Younger age297 207−0.38 to 0.280.06*
Female sex2511 261−0.4 to 0.310.13*
Race (minority status)228 165−0.27 to 0.390.05*
Psychiatric history227 3070.00 to 0.290.11
Low socioeconomic status185 9570.1 to 0.380.14*
Other adverse childhood factors146 9690.09 to 0.600.19*
Other previous trauma145 147−0.05 to 0.360.12*
Family psychiatric history114 7920.07 to 0.280.13
Lack of social support113 276−0.02 to 0.540.40*
Childhood abuse91 7460.07 to 0.300.14
Life stress82 8040.26 to 0.540.32*
Low intelligence61 1490.08 to 0.380.18*