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Population based within-woman prospective cohort study.
Follow up period:
Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA; 1996 to 2004.
231 premenopausal women (age 35–47 years) with normal periods in the past three months, with no history of depression, and no current diagnosis of depression (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), and Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score <16). Exclusion criteria: no ovaries; uterus not intact; use of psychotropic or hormonal medication; pregnancy or breast feeding; serious conditions known to affect ovarian function (such as endometrial cancer); or alcohol or drug abuse in the previous year.
Menopausal status (Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria; premenopausal (menstrual cycle length 22–35 days) v transition (change of …
For correspondence: Ellen W Freeman, PhD, Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3701 Market Street, Suite 820 (Mudd), Philadelphia, USA;
Source of funding: National Institutes of Health.
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