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Systematic review of cross-sectional studies without meta-analysis.
EMBASE, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, US National Criminal Justice Reference Abstract database, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction database, and hand searches of reference lists (January 1966 to January 2004).
Study selection and analysis:
Studies reporting prevalence of alcohol or substance abuse or dependence in prisoners during the previous year; diagnosed through examination or clinical interview using standardised, valid diagnostic tools. Exclusions: self-reported diagnosis; diagnosis based on biological markers alone, or unclear or non-standard criteria; non-randomised population selection; diagnosis reported retrospectively after prison release; high attrition rates (>50%); …
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