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A universally administered primary prevention programme for depression reduces symptoms in German adolescents with low self-efficacy

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Q Does a cognitive-behavioural primary prevention programme reduce risk factors and symptoms of depression in adolescents, and is its effectiveness moderated by the degree of self-efficacy of participants?


Embedded ImageDesign:

Randomised controlled trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:


Embedded ImageBlinding:

Open (however, participants were not aware of outcome measures).

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

Three months.

Embedded ImageSetting:

Six middle schools in Tuebingen, Germany; timeframe not stated.

Embedded ImagePatients:

347 eighth grade (age 13–14 years) students in 12 classes (seven classes were randomly assigned to treatment programme and five to control). Exclusions: students without parental consent; participants scoring in the clinical range for depression at the beginning of the study.

Embedded ImageIntervention:

A cognitive-behavioural school-based primary …

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  • For correspondence: Patrick Pössel, Department of Clinical and Physiological Psychology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Christophstr 2, 72072 Tuebingen, Germany; patrick.poessel{at}

  • Sources of funding: DFG graduate programme grants.

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