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Studies were identified by searching 12 databases; hand searching reviews, reference lists, and conference proceedings; and contacting pharmaceutical companies.
Studies in any language were selected if they were controlled clinical trials that compared α2 adrenergic agonists with each other, another treatment, or placebo for managing opioid withdrawal in patients who were opioid dependent.
Data were extracted on study design and setting, participant characteristics, drug regimens, and outcomes.
13 studies (11 randomised controlled trials [RCTs]) fufilled the criteria. 10 studies compared methadone dose reduction with α2 adrenergic agonists (6 comparisons of clonedine, 3 of lofexidine, and 2 of guanfacine), and 3 RCTs compared lofexidine with clonidine. Intensity of …
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