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QUESTIONS: In patients with chronic pain, excluding headache, how effective is psychological treatment (including cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT], behavioural therapy, and biofeedback), and is it more effective than alternative active treatments?
Studies were identified by searching 4 databases and scanning reference lists.
Selected studies were randomised controlled trials of cognitive behavioural treatments including behaviour therapy in adults who presented with chronic pain. Studies were excluded if they did not provide data for computing effect sizes.
Treatments were categorised into 3 primary types: biofeedback and relaxation, behaviour therapy, and CBT. Control groups were categorised as waiting list control and alternative treatment control. Because the studies had multiple measures, measurement domains were created: pain experience, mood or affect, cognitive …
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