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Association between mental disorders and somatic conditions: protocol for an umbrella review
  1. Samuele Cortese1,2,3,4,5,6,
  2. Marco Solmi7,8,
  3. Gonzalo Arrondo9,
  4. Andrea Cipriani10,11,
  5. Paolo Fusar-Poli8,12,13,14,
  6. Henrik Larsson15,16,
  7. Christoph Correll17,18,19
  1. 1 Centre for Innovation in Mental Health (CIMH), School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
  2. 2 Clinical and Experimental Sciences (CNS and Psychiatry), Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
  3. 3 Solent NHS Trust, Southampton, UK
  4. 4 Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  5. 5 National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, NIHR MindTech MedTech Co-operative, Nottingham, UK
  6. 6 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
  7. 7 Neuroscience Department, Psychiatry Unit, Padua Neuroscience Center, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
  8. 8 Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
  9. 9 Mind-Brain Group. Institute for Culture and Society, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
  10. 10 Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  11. 11 Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
  12. 12 National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  13. 13 OASIS Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  14. 14 Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
  15. 15 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  16. 16 School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  17. 17 The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Division of Psychiatry Research, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, New York, New York, USA
  18. 18 Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, The Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, New York, USA
  19. 19 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitäts medizin, Berlin, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Professor Samuele Cortese, Centre for Innovation in Mental Health (CIMH), School of Psychology, University of Southamptopn, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK; samuele.cortese{at}


Introduction Although several systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses (MAs) on the association between specific mental disorders and specific somatic conditions are available, an overarching evidence synthesis across mental disorders and somatic conditions is currently lacking. We will conduct an umbrella review of SRs/MAs to test: 1) the strength of the association between individual mental disorders and individual somatic conditions in children/adolescents and adults; 2) to which extent associations are specific to individual mental and somatic conditions .

Methods and analysis We will search a broad set of electronic databases and contact study authors. We will include SRs with MA or SRs reporting the effect size from individual studies on the association between a number of somatic and mental conditions (as per the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision). We will follow an algorithm to select only one SR or MA when more than one are available on the same association. We will rate the quality of included SRs/MAs using the AMSTAR-2 tool. We will assess to which extent mental disorders are selectively associated with specific somatic conditions or if there are transdiagnostic, across-spectra or diagnostic spectrum-specific associations between mental disorders and somatic conditions based on the Transparent, Reporting, Appraising, Numerating, Showing (TRANSD) recommendations.

Discussion The present umbrella review will shed light on the association between mental health disorders and somatic conditions, providing useful data for the care of patients with mental health disorders, in particular for early detection and intervention. This work might also add insight to the pathophysiology of mental health conditions, and contribute to the current debate on the value of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry.

  • adult psychiatry
  • child & adolescent psychiatry

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  • Twitter @Cortesesamuele, @And_Cipriani

  • Contributors SC drafted the protocol. SC, MS, AC, PF-P and CC elaborated the algorithm. SC, MS, GA, AC, HL, PF-P and CC critically revised the first draft of the protocol.

  • Funding Dr. Gonzalo Arrondo is funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities to facilitate the mobility of researchers to foreign higher education and research centers (Ref. CAS19/00249. Professor Andrea Cipriani is supported by the NIHR Oxford Cognitive Health Clinical Research Facility, by an NIHR Research Professorship (grant number RP-2017- 08-ST2-006), by the NIHR Oxford and Thames Valley Applied Research Collaboration, and by the NIHR Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre (grant number IS- BRC-1215-20005)

  • Competing interests SC declares reimbursement for travel and accommodation expenses from the Association for Child and Adolescent Central Health (ACAMH) in relation to lectures delivered for ACAMH, Canadian AADHD Alliance Resource (CADDRA), British Association of Psychopharmacology (BAP) and from Healthcare Convention for educational activity on ADHD. Dr Correll has been a consultant and/or advisor to or has received honoraria from: Alkermes, Allergan, Angelini, Gerson Lehrman Group, IntraCellular Therapies, Janssen/J&J, LB Pharma, Lundbeck, Medavante, Medscape, Merck, Neurocrine, Otsuka, Pfizer, ROVI, Servier, Sunovion, Takeda and Teva. He has provided expert testimony for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Janssen and Otsuka. He served on a Data Safety-Monitoring Board for Lundbeck and ROVI. He received royalties from UpToDate and grant support from Janssen and Takeda. He is also a shareholder of LB Pharma.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data will be uploaded in osf (, on a publicly available page

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