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English language studies were identified by searching Medline (1966 to June 1996) using the terms heroin, opiate, methadone, substance abuse, fetal development, pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality and abnormalities, infant-newborn, and all subheadings. Review articles and reference lists from identified articles were also reviewed.
Studies were selected if they provided sufficient data for comparisons to be made between neonatal mortality in infants of women who used opiates and those who did not.
Data were extracted on type of maternal addiction, mean number of antenatal visits, …
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