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Developing personalised integrated psychotherapy for patients with personality disorders
  1. Paul S Links
  1. Department of Psychiatry, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, Victoria Hospital, North Tower, Rm B8-132, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5W9; paul.links{at}

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What is already known on this topic?

Several psychotherapy treatments specifically developed for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have proven to be effective.1 General psychiatric management (GPM) is one of the therapies that have been shown to be effective for reducing recurrent suicidal and self-harm behaviour, symptom distress and borderline personality disorder features.2 However, these proven effective therapies1 ,2 have generally been delivered over 1–3 years of therapy.

What this paper adds?

  • Kramer and colleagues have tested the effectiveness of GPM given over only 10 sessions or 3-month duration of the treatment.

  • This study attempts to adopt psychotherapeutic ‘personalised medicine’ by using an individualised relationship intervention as an added therapy ingredient with GPM.

  • The approach may also improve the working alliance between patients with borderline personality and their therapists early in the course of therapy.


  • The outcomes were not measured beyond the 3-month duration …

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