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In young men, various risk factors are associated with later development of young-onset dementia

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Question: What non-genetic risk factors in late adolescence and young adulthood are associated with the development of young-onset dementia (YOD) in men in later life?

People: 488 484 Swedish men conscripted for mandatory military service (mean age 18 years) from September 1969 through December 1979. Men were excluded for extreme body weight (<40 or >170 kg) or height (<140 or >215 cm).

Setting: Sweden; 1969–2011.

Risk factors: Cognitive function (scored on a range from 1 to 40, assessed by summing the normalised z-scores of a logic test, a word recollection test, a visuospatial test and a technical test assessing problem-solving capacity), year of conscription, age, height and weight, knee muscle strength and blood pressure (BP) were assessed during standardised cognitive and physical examinations at time of conscription. Annual income and education level were assessed 15 years after conscription using the Statistics Sweden database. Diagnoses of alcohol intoxication, other drug intoxication, depression or use of antidepressants, myocardial infarction, stroke, use of antipsychotic or antidiabetic medication and parental diagnosis of dementia were assessed using …

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  • Correspondence to Peter Nordstrom, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, 90187 Umea University, Umea, Sweden. 

  • Sources of funding The Swedish Research Council and the Swedish Dementia Foundation.


  • Competing interests None.

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