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Diagnostic test for dementias

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  • Competing interests None.

  • i MMSE is the most commonly used test for examining cognitive functions and screening for dementia. It has 11 questions and its maximum score is 30, with the commonly used threshold to raise suspicion of dementia is 24/23.

  • ii DLB is a neurocognitive disorder characterised by progressive cognitive impairment, fluctuations in attention and alertness, recurrent complex visual hallucination, REM sleep behaviour disorders and/or spontaneous features of parkinsonism. When parkinsonism precedes onset of dementia, it is often differentiated from DLB and is called Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD).

  • iii MIBG is an analogue of norepinephrine and its uptake by the heart is hampered under local myocardial sympathetic nerve damage, not only in primary heart disease but also in neurological disorders with autonomic failure, such as Parkinson's disease or DLB.