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Alzheimer's disease is associated with increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke

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Question: Are community-dwelling people with Alzheimer's disease at increased risk of stroke, and is there a difference by type of stroke?

People: All 28 093 community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer's disease living in Finland on 31 December 2005, who were each matched to a person without Alzheimer's disease by age, sex and region of residence (total n=56 186; mean age 79.6 years; 67.8% were female; age range 42–101). People with strokes prior to 1 January 2006 or to their Alzheimer's diagnosis were excluded along with their matched controls, as were pairs where the matched controls had been entitled to reimbursed Alzheimer's medication before enrolment. This left 25 404 pairs of individuals for analysis. Individuals in the control group who developed Alzheimer's during follow-up (1766 people) were included in the Alzheimer's group from the date of diagnosis.

Setting: Finland; December 2005–December 2009.

Risk factors: Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was based on National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCS-ADRDA) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. People with Alzheimer's disease were identified from national prescription and reimbursement registers that were …

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  • Sources of funding University of Eastern Finland.


  • Correspondence to Dr Jonathan Stone, Professor of Retinal and Cerebral Neurobiology, Director, Bosch Institute, Save Sight Institute and Discipline of Physiology, University of Sydney F13, NSW 2006 Australia

  • Competing interests None.

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