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Siblings of adolescents with ADHD who themselves have ADHD are more likely to have psychiatric comorbidities than are unaffected siblings or controls without ADHD

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What is the rate of psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their siblings?


136 adolescent probands (mean age 12.8 years, 85% male) with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria), 136 siblings of the probands (selected sibling closest in age to the proband if more than one sibling; mean age 11.5 years for ADHD-affected siblings and 13.1 years for unaffected siblings) and 136 control participants who were age- and sex-matched to the proband and did not have a diagnosis of ADHD (mean age 12.4 years). Adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders, psychotic disorders or an IQ of <80 were excluded.


One child psychiatric clinic, National Taiwan University Hospital; date not specified.


The current and lifetime episodes of mental disorders of all participants were assessed with the Chinese Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) by trained interviewers. Diagnoses were derived from the K-SADS-E interviews, medical records and self-administered questionnaires given to parents, teachers and participants. The researcher making the diagnoses was blind …

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  • Sources of funding National Health Research Institute, Taiwan.


  • Competing interests None.

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