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Incident cannabis use in adolescents and young adults is associated with an increased risk of developing psychotic symptoms

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Does the cannabis use in adolescence increase the risk of psychotic outcomes by affecting the incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms?


1923 German citizens aged between 14 and 24 years old at baseline (average 18.3 years), resident in Munich and its counties, were included in the final analysis. The initial sample was selected at random from population registry offices, and there were 3021 participants at baseline. Individuals who could not be contacted, refused to participate, had missing information or were lost to follow-up were excluded from the analyses. The assessments used in the current analysis took place at baseline, T2 (an average of 3.5 years after baseline) and T3 (an average of 8.4 years after baseline). Cannabis use was assessed at all three time points, and psychosis was assessed at T2 (lifetime) and T3 (interval). In the analyses looking at incident cannabis use and incidence of psychosis, individuals reporting cannabis use at baseline were excluded, as were those reporting lifetime psychotic experiences at T2.


General population, Germany; 1995–2005.

Prognostic factors

Incident …

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