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Relationship between type 2 diabetes and risk of depression is bi-directional

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Is the type 2 diabetes depression relation bi-directional?


Two separate subgroups of the Nurses' Health Study Cohort of registered female nurses in the USA aged between 30 and 55 years in 1976 when the study started. Participants were followed up every 2 years since, and the 1996 cycle was used as baseline for this analysis. The first sample included 57 880 women who were free of type 2 diabetes at baseline and who were followed up until incident diabetes, death or study end at June 2006 comparing those with and without depression at baseline. The second sample included 56 857 participants who were depression free at baseline and who were followed until diagnosis of depression (estimated as the middle of the 2-year cycle when depression was first reported), death or study end comparing those with and without diabetes at baseline.



Prognostic factors

Depressive symptoms assessed through self-reported measures …

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  • Source of funding National Institutes of Health.


  • Competing interests DGB has received payment from Novartis for running educational programmes.