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Likelihood of later hospital admission for deliberate self-harm may be influenced by various risk factors in young people smoking

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What are the risk factors in young people for episodes of deliberate self-harm (DSH) requiring hospital admission?


2736 young people aged 4–16 years, identified from the Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS). This cross-sectional household survey involved face to face interview of children and their primary carers, and paper-based questionnaires sent to the children's current school. Data from a number of domains were collected, including characteristics of the child, carer, family, school and community. Insufficient numbers of aboriginal children living in Perth were identified for the analysis, and those living outside the Perth Metropolitan area were excluded from the study.


Perth, Western Australia; July 1993 to December 2007.

Risk factors

Individual child characteristics (eg, gender, extent of behavioural or emotional problems using the Achenbach's Child Behaviour Checklist); primary carer characteristics (eg, smoking status of primary carer); family level characteristics (eg, age of mother at child's birth, consistency of parenting style, family type, family income and family functioning using the McMaster Family Assessment Device); school characteristics (eg, child's academic performance rated by the teacher); and community characteristics (eg, urban or rural, socioeconomic disadvantage index). Multivariate proportional hazards modelling to identify independent risk factors associated with increased likelihood of …

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  • Source of funding Australian Research Council and Healthway (formerly the Health Promotion Foundation of Western Australia).


  • Competing interests None.