Article Text

Download PDFPDF
People with bipolar disorder and comorbid substance abuse are six times more likely to be convicted of violent crime than the general population

Statistics from



Is bipolar disorder associated with violent crime?


3743 individuals with two or more discharge diagnoses of bipolar disorder, and 4059 unaffected full siblings of 2570 of these individuals, plus 37 429 general population controls. General population controls were randomly selected from the population, with about 10 age- and gender-matched controls selected for each person with bipolar disorder.


Population-based registers in Sweden from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 2004.

Prognostic factors

Bipolar disorder discharge diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases, ICD-8, ICD-9 or ICD-10. Data on sociodemographic factors was also obtained, and significant confounders adjusted for in the analyses (age, gender, income, marital status and immigrant status).


Convictions of violent crime, including homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense (rape, sexual coercion, child molestation, indecent exposure or sexual harassment), illegal threats or intimidation. Attempted and aggravated forms of offences were also included where applicable. Only offences which occurred after the diagnoses of bipolar disorder were included.



Cohort study plus a systematic review and meta analysis (see Notes below).

Follow-up period

Up to 31 years.

Main results

The prevalence of convictions for violent crime among people …

View Full Text


  • Sources of funding The Swedish Medical Research Council and the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research.


  • Competing interests None.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.