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Girls with ADHD have an increased risk of psychopathology in young adulthood

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What is the prevalence of psychopathology in girls with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed into young adulthood?


A total of 262 girls aged between 6 and 18 years were recruited from various from various psychiatric and paediatric sources. Out of these, 140 girls had DSM-III-R ADHD, and 122 did not (controls). Exclusion criteria: being adopted, nuclear family not available for participation, major sensorimotor disabilities, psychosis, autism, full-scale IQ<80, or inadequate ability with the English language.


USA; time period not stated.

Prognostic factors:

Diagnosis of ADHD.


Lifetime and previous-year DSM-IV psychopathology, including composite categories of antisocial disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, developmental disorder, and substance-dependence disorders. Diagnoses were assessed in interviews with the participants and their mothers using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and modules of the DSM-IV modified Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Epidemiologic Version. Assessments were made blinded to original diagnoses.



Longitudinal case–control study.

Follow up period:

Mean 11 years.

Main results

Of the 262 girls enrolled, 187 …

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  • Sources of funding Eli Lilly and Company Foundation and the Pediatric Psychopharmacology Philanthropy fund.


  • Competing interests PQ has a consulting relationship with McNeil Pediatrics, a division of Ortho, McNeil, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. In addition, she was a speaker for Lilly UK at their annual ADHD conference in 2009.

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