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Neurofeedback training improves ADHD symptoms more than attention skills training

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Does neurofeedback training produce greater improvements in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with attention skills training?


102 children (8–12 years old) with DSM-IV ADHD based on a semi-structured clinical interview (CASCAP-D) and the Diagnostic Checklist for Hyperkinetic Disorders/ADHD.

Main exclusions: gross neurological or organic disorders; medication or psychotherapy received within 6 weeks of beginning the intervention. Children with comorbid conduct disorder, emotional disorders, tic disorder and dyslexia were included in study. The majority of participants (87, 85.3%) were drug naive.


Outpatient clinics in three cities in Germany; May 2005–December 2007.


Neurofeedback training (NF) or attention skills training (AST). NF involved theta/beta training and slow cortical potential training using the computerised Self-regulation and Attention Management system. AST was based on the computerised program Skillies, which targets visual and auditory perception, vigilance, sustained attention and reactivity. Training was presented in two blocks of nine 50 min double sessions, two or three times a week. Each block lasted 3–4 weeks. Children trained in pairs and the administering psychologist discussed strategies for successful completion of the tasks and provided positive feedback …

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  • Sources of funding German Research Foundation.


  • Competing interests DC has been paid by several companies that make medications for treating ADHD. Janssen Cilag, UCB, Shire, Pfizer, Medice, Flynn Pharma and Lilly for consultancy, research and speaking at and travel to conferences.

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