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Advanced paternal age increases risk of bipolar disorder in offspring

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Does advanced paternal age increase the risk of bipolar disorder in offspring?


7 739 202 individuals were identified through linkage of the Hospital Discharge Register and the Multigeneration Register. From this study base of over 7 million individuals, 13 428 cases (42% male) with two known biological parents and at least two separate hospital admissions for bipolar disorder (using ICD codes) were identified. Exclusions: people diagnosed with bipolar disorder but with only one hospitalisation (to avoid inclusion of people who were misdiagnosed); people diagnosed with unipolar depression. Controls (67 140 people; five randomly selected for each case) were people without a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and matched to cases for sex and age. Controls had to be alive at the date of the case’s first hospitalisation to allow for an equal period of risk.


General population, Sweden; registry data was obtained for the period 1932 and 1991.

Risk factors:

The primary risk factor of interest was paternal age. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate risk of bipolar disorder controlling for possible …

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