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Review: long term psychodynamic psychotherapy improves outcomes in people with complex mental disorders

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How effective is long term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) in people with complex mental disorders?


Overall outcome, target problems, general psychiatric symptoms, personality and social functioning (see notes).



Systematic review with meta-analysis.

Data sources:

MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Current Contents were searched from 1960 to May 2008 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Reference lists of identified articles and textbooks were hand searched, and authors and experts contacted for further information.

Study selection and analysis:

Two reviewers appraised the studies and selected RCTs and observational studies of LTPP. Inclusion criteria: studies in adults; ⩾50 sessions or 1 year of LTTP; reliable outcome measures used; mental disorders of participants clearly described; and sufficient data to determine effect sizes. Studies with concomitant treatments were included but analysed separately to compare results of combined treatments versus LTTP alone. Two reviewers independently rated study quality, extracted data and assessed effect sizes. Point biserial correlation coefficients (rp) were used as measures of between and within group effect sizes, …

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