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Review: Cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescents with depression

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Jesse Klein

Correspondence to: Jesse Klein, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 710 North Lake Shore Drive, Abott Hall, Suite 1205, Chicago, IL 60611, USA;



How effective is cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression and what factors explain the observed changes in meta-analytic effect sizes over time?


Effectiveness of CBT; differences in estimates of efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescents; moderator variables (treatment duration, nature of sample, type of control group, setting, methodological rigor, therapist vocation, severity of depression at baseline).



Systematic review with meta-analysis.

Data sources:

Medical and psychological databases (PsycINFO and MEDLINE) were searched from January 1980 to September 2006. A hand search of reference lists of studies of CBT was also carried out.

Study selection and analysis:

Published, peer-reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT in people aged 12–18 years with depression (DSM-III or later, Researcher Diagnostic Criteria, Bellevue Index of Depression Criteria). RCTs had to compare CBT with a control group (for example, waiting list control) or an alternative psychotherapy group (for example, non-directive supportive therapy). Effect sizes were calculated …

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  • Competing interests: None.

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