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Depression: greater effect on overall health than angina, arthritis, asthma or diabetes

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  • Notes: Although the authors attempted to address this, it remains a possibility that having depression biased overall health scores because of a tendency to report things more negatively than those without depression with the same level of health. Importantly, the study did not assess or control for duration of illness—a factor which is likely to impact on overall health status. Only depression and angina diagnoses were based on validated algorithms. False negative diagnoses of asthma and arthritis cannot be ruled out.

  • Source of funding: World Health Organization.

  • ▸ An additional table is published online only at


  • Competing interests: None.

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