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Cognitive therapy improves post-traumatic stress disorder associated with civil conflict in Northern Ireland

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Michael Duffy

Correspondence to: Michael Duffy, University of Ulster at Magee, Londonderry, Northern Ireland BT48 7JL;



How effective is cognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with terrorism and civil conflict in Northern Ireland?


58 adults (60% male) with DSM-IV PTSD associated with terrorism and civil conflict. Most participants (81%) had experienced multiple traumas (median of 3 traumas), mainly associated with the Northern Ireland “troubles” (84%), including bombings (40%). The median duration of PTSD in participants was 5.2 years, and most participants (72%) had axis I comorbidity, mainly major depression (64%). Exclusion criterion: needing immediate treatment for another disorder.


Northern Ireland Centre for Trauma and Transformation community treatment centre, Omagh, Northern Ireland; enrolment August 2003 to September 2004.


Cognitive therapy or waiting list control for 12 weeks. Cognitive …

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