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Cognitive remediation therapy produces moderate improvements in working memory in people with schizophrenia

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Professor Til Wykes

Department of Psychology, PO Box 77, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK;



Is cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) effective for the cognitive problems experienced by people with schizophrenia?


85 adults aged ⩾17 years with DSM-IV schizophrenia and evidence of social and cognitive dysfunction (poor scores on the Social Behaviour Scale, Rivermead memory scale, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and/or Hayling Sentence Completion Test). Participants had to have been in contact with mental health services for at least a year.


Community setting, London, UK; time period not stated.


CRT or treatment as usual. CRT consisted of 40 face-to-face sessions with trained psychologists on three days per week over ∼12 weeks. Sessions were based on teaching modules laid out in a manual, and involved cognitive flexibility (tasks in engagement activity), working memory (tasks involving holding information sets in the mind) and planning (goal attainment). Treatment as usual consisted of atypical antipsychotics, and was …

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  • Source of funding: Department of Health, UK.


  • Competing interests: None.