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Toddler-parent psychotherapy increases secure attachment between toddlers and mothers who have experienced major depressive disorder

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Does toddler-parent psychotherapy improve secure attachment between children and mothers with major depressive disorder?

Toth SL, Rogosch FA, Manly JT, et al. The efficacy of toddler-parent psychotherapy to reorganise attachment in the young offspring of mothers with major depressive disorder: a randomized preventive trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2006;74:1006–16.


Embedded ImageDesign:

Randomised controlled trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:

Not clear.

Embedded ImageBlinding:

Single blind (assessors blinded).

Embedded ImageFollow-up period:

Sixteen months.

Embedded ImageSetting:

Recruitment through referral from mental health professionals and notices in newspapers, community publications, medical offices and community bulletin boards; 1992–6.

Embedded ImagePatients:

130 mothers of toddlers (about 20 months old) who had experienced DSM-III-R major depressive disorder since the birth of their children. Main exclusions: low socioeconomic status, bipolar disorder.

Embedded ImageIntervention:

Toddler-parent psychotherapy (TPP) or control (no TPP). TPP consisted of joint mother and toddler therapy sessions in which the therapist helps the mother to recognise how she experiences and perceives …

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  • Sources of funding: National Institute of Mental Health.


  • Competing interests: None.