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St Louis, USA; interviews conducted September 1999 to April 2004.
690 first-degree relatives (age ⩾6 years) of 219 children (probands) with prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar I disorder (PEA-BP-I; 95 children with DSM-IV criteria for mania with ⩾1 cardinal mania symptom; 284 relatives), DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 47 children, 143 relatives) or healthy matched controls (77 children matched to PEA-BP-I group for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and area of residence; 263 relatives). No exclusion criteria were given for first degree relatives. Exclusions for probands: poor physical health; bipolar I disorder <2 weeks (PEA-BP-I probands only); lifetime or …
For correspondence: Barbara Geller, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110-1093, USA;
Source of funding: National Institute of Mental Health, USA.
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