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Cannabis use increases risk of developing symptoms of mania

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Q Does cannabis use increase the likelihood that a person will develop mania?


Embedded ImageDesign:

Prospective cohort study.

Embedded ImageFollow-up period:

Three years.

Embedded ImageSetting:

General population in 90 randomly selected municipalities, the Netherlands; time period not stated.

Embedded ImagePeople:

4815 people aged 18–64 years (mean age 41.2 years, 53% female) selected using multistage stratified random sampling of private households. Exclusions not stated.

Embedded ImageRisk factors:

Trained interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at baseline, 1 and 3 years to assess lifetime use and highest frequency of use of cannabis. Mania and psychosis were also assessed. Psychosis was classified as at least 1 positive rating (score of 2 to 6) on any of the 17 CIDI core psychosis items. Logistic regression was used …

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  • For correspondence: Jim van Os, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616 (DRT 10), 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands; j.vanos{at}

  • Source of funding: Dutch Ministry of Health, the Netherlands.

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