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Prospective cohort study.
Five psychiatric emergency departments, upper Manhattan, New York, USA; time period not specified.
386 adults (17–45 years old) admitted as psychiatric emergencies, with DSM-IV primary psychotic disorder or substance-induced psychosis, and using alcohol, or drugs or both in the previous 30 days. Exclusions: first hospitalisation for psychosis more than 6 months before the index admission; extended period of continuous psychotic symptoms with no prior treatment.
Baseline DSM-IV diagnosis, psychiatric symptom levels (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)), demographic factors (Community Care Schedule), premorbid functioning (Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS)), duration of untreated psychosis (defined as number of days from first psychotic symptom reported by …
For correspondence: Carol L M Caton, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 56, New York, NY 10032, USA;
Sources of funding: The National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol, USA.