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Increased prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression in displaced tsunami survivors from southern Thailand

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Q What is the prevalence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among tsunami survivors in southern Thailand?


Embedded ImageDesign:

Cross sectional study.

Embedded ImageSetting:

Phang Nga, Krabi and Phuket provinces of southern Thailand; February 2005 and September 2005.

Embedded ImagePopulation:

371 displaced people from Phang Nga and 690 non-displaced people from Phang Nga (4224 deaths) and the lower impact areas of Krabi and Phuket (1000 deaths).

Embedded ImageAssessment:

The face-to-face interview consisted of questions from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and the Hopkins Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) to assess anxiety and depression. Surveys were conducted two and nine months after the tsunami.

Embedded ImageOutcomes:

Symptoms of PTSD (score of 3 or 4 on ⩾1 reoccurring symptom, and on ⩾3 avoidance and numbing symptoms, and on ⩾2 arousal symptoms on the HTQ); anxiety or depression (defined as mean cumulative symptom scores >1.75 on either the anxiety or depression subscales of the HSCL-25).

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

Nine months.


Two …

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  • For correspondence: Barbara Lopes Cardozo, MD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-97, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; bhc8{at}

  • Sources of funding: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Thailand Ministry of Public Health.