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Bibliotherapy is more effective than waiting list for reducing childhood anxiety disorder, but not as effective as group cognitive behavioural therapy

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Q What is the efficacy of parent-directed bibliotherapy for childhood anxiety disorders compared with group cognitive behavioural therapy or waiting list?


Embedded ImageDesign:

Randomised controlled trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:


Embedded ImageBlinding:

Single blind (assessors blinded).

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

Twelve-week treatment period, plus 12 weeks’ follow up for active treatments.

Embedded ImageSetting:

Community and university research setting in Australia; 1999 to 2003.

Embedded ImagePatients:

267 children aged 6–12 years old, with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV anxiety disorder (Anxiety Disorders Schedule for DSM-IV, child and parent versions (ADIS-CP)). Children with comorbidities were not excluded unless they were at risk of suicide or needed urgent intervention.

Embedded ImageIntervention:

Group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), bibliotherapy, or waiting list. Group CBT: nine two-hour sessions attended by both children and parents over 12 weeks, …

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  • For correspondence: Ronald M Rapee, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia; ron.rapee{at}

  • Source of funding: Australian Rotary Health Research Fund.